Mississippi


Virtute et armis
Mississippi was the second state to declare succession from the Union. About 80,000 men from Mississippi fought in the Civil War. Northeast Mississippi saw fighting from the war’s earliest days to its final months. Mississippi troops fought in every major theater of the Civil War. In the Battle of Vicksburg, over 3,000 soldeiers lost their lives.

Pvt. John Nixon

By SCV Camp 1708, Scottsdale, Arizona

Pvt. Nixon joined the 1st Battalion Sharpshooters [also called 10th and 20th Battalion] which was organized during the fall of 1862 with three Mississippi companies from the 2nd Confederate Infantry Regiment.

Attached to General Rust’s and Featherston’s Brigade, Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana, it participated in numerous conflicts around Vicksburg. Continuing under the command of General Featherston, the battalion fought with the Army of Tennessee from Resaca to Bentonville. In December, 1864, it had 54 officers and men fit for duty, but only a handful surrendered on April 26, 1865.

It was commanded by Majors William A. Rayburn and James M. Stigler.

Adam Bolivar Alexander

By SCV Camp 1708, Scottsdale, AZ

Pvt. Adam Bolivar Alexander mustered into the 1st Artillery Regiment when it was organized during the late summer of 1862 with eleven companies.

During the war the various companies served as both light and heavy artillery but not as one command. The regiment was assigned to the Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana, and Companes A, C, D, F, G, I, K, and L were assigned to the Department of Alabama, Mississippi, and East Louisiana, Company E to the Trans-Mississippi Department, and Company G to the Army of Tennessee.

All disbanded before the end of the war. Its commanders were Colonel William T. Withers, Lieutenant Colonel James P. Parker, and Majors Benjamin R. Holmes and Jefferson L. Wofford.

Pvt. Charles P. Worley

By Kent Worley

Pvt. Charles P. Worley joined the 21st Infantry Regiment when it was organized in October, 1861, using the 1st (Brandon’s) Mississippi Infantry Battalion as its nucleus. It was mustered into Confederate service at Manassas, Virginia. The men were from the counties of Warren, Hinds, Claiborne, Lafayette, Tallahatchie, Madison, Holmes, and Union.

In April, 1862, its force was 684 men, and during the war it served under the command of Generals Griffith, Barksdale, and Humphreys. The 21st participated in the campaigns of the army from the Seven Days’ Battles to Gettysburg, then moved to Longstreet to fight at Chickamauga and Knoxville.

After returning to Virginia it was involved in the Battles of The Wilderness, Spotsylvania, and Cold Harbor, Early’s Shenandoah Valley operations, and the Appomattox Campaign. It lost 32 killed and 119 wounded during the Seven Days’ Battles, had 3 killed and 56 wounded of the 200 engaged at Sharpsburg, and had 11 wounded at Fredericksburg. Its casualties at Chancellorsville were 3 killed and 25 wounded and twenty-four percent of the 424 at Gettysburg were disabled. Many were captured at Sayler’s Creek, and only 4 officers and 44 men surrendered.

Its field officers were Colonels William L. Brandon, Benjamin G. Humphreys, and Daniel N. Moody; Lieutenant Colonels William H. Fitzgerald and John Sims; and Major John G. Taylor.

Samuel Norvell McCaa

By Danella Dickson

Samuel Norvell McCaa was born March 6, 1835 in Jefferson or Franklin County, Mississippi, the son of Elihu and Nancy M. Miller McCaa. The McCaa family migrated from South Carolina to Mississippi in the early 1800’s. Elihu was a Baptist minister in Franklin County in 1850. Elihu and Nancy were the parents of five sons, all of which fought for the Confederacy, and survived the war to return home.

Samuel married Martha Ann Sullivan October 19, 1859 in Franklin County, Mississippi. They were the parents of four children.

Samuel enlisted January 10, 1862 at Franklin County, Mississippi in Garland’s Battalion. In August 1863 several organizations were consolidated to form the 14th Confederate Cavalry. Samuel was a Private in Captain William M. Porter’s Company I. The only muster rolls available for Samuel cover the period October 15, 1861 to June 30, 1864 and report that he was a teamster for the regiment. It is believed by McCaa family historian Leon McCaa that the 14th Mississippi Cavalry was a Partisan Ranger unit. Samuel Brown, author of the History of the 1st Partisan Rangers explained, “The Partisan Ranger Act was passed in April 1862 by the Confederate Congress as a stimulus for recruitment of irregulars for service into the Confederate States Army. Their purpose was to operate more or less independently against small bodies of the enemy, to disrupt his communications, and to damage him in every way possible without being drawn into a fixed battle. Usually they were mounted but distinguished from regular troops by a special provision that for any munitions of war captured from the enemy they were to be paid in cash in such manner as the Secretary of War might prescribe. This feature places them in much the same dubious category on land as privateers on the high seas. Ranger warfare and privateering were recognized as integral parts of military and naval warfare.” A possible advantage for Samuel and other men in his regiment was the chance to remain close to home for the protection of their families. We have no record of the movement of Samuel’s regiment or involvement in any significant battle. From his pension application filed many years later we know that in 1865 when the Confederate Army surrendered Samuel was at home sick.

Between 1870 and 1880 Samuel’s wife Martha Ann died, her burial place is unknown. Samuel married Ida Kinnison January 20, 1884 in Franklin County, Mississippi. Apparently he supported his family by farming.

Samuel applied for a Confederate pension from the State of Mississippi September 6, 1915. He was eighty two years old and stated that he was indigent and no longer able to earn a living. The value of his property was $100.00. The application was approved by the County Board of Inquiry and also by the state pension board for an unspecified amount which he drew until his death in 1916. Samuel Norvell McCaa is buried in the New Hope Baptist Church Cemetery, Franklin County, Mississippi.

Courtesy of J.B. and Ramona Roberts

David Monroe McCaa

By Danella Dickson

David Monroe McCaa was born October 30, 1845 in Franklin County, Mississippi, the son of Elihu and Nancy M. Miller McCaa. The McCaa family migrated from South Carolina to Mississippi in the early 1800’s. Elihu was a Baptist minister in Franklin County in 1850. Elihu and Nancy were the parents of five sons, all of which fought for the Confederacy, and survived the war to return home.

David enlisted September 1, 1863 as a Private in Company B, 14th Mississippi Cavalry. He was captured by the enemy near Rodney, Jefferson County, Mississippi December 23, 1863 and sent to the newly opened Rock Island Barracks Prisoner of War Camp. Rock Island Barracks was located on the Mississippi River between the cities of Davenport, Iowa and Rock Island, Illinois. The makeshift prison construction was not complete when the first prisoners arrived. The first prisoners arrived at a time when the temperature was reported to be below zero, and almost immediately suffered an outbreak of smallpox. David was diagnosed with smallpox and sent to the Smallpox Hospital at Fort Monroe, Virginia. The transfer may well have saved his life as the death rate at Rock Island was reported to be 600 within three months.

David spent the remainder of the war at Rock Island Barracks, on his pension application filed many years later he stated he served four months with his command and nineteen months in prison. He was released in June 1865 and returned home, most likely suffering from the long confinement and lack of proper food.

On December 17, 1868 David married Mary T. Jones. They were the parents of nine children and made their home in Franklin County, Mississippi where David farmed.

David applied for a Confederate pension from the state of Mississippi on August 7, 1916. He stated that he was no longer able to earn support by his own hand, the pension was approved. At that time he had property valued at eighty dollars.

David died at the age of seventy six on January 17, 1922. His widow Mary applied for a Confederate widow’s pension July 1, 1926 which was approved for an unspecified amount. She continued to draw this pension until her death February 11, 1928. David and Mary are buried in the New Hope Baptist Cemetery, Franklin County, Mississippi.

Courtesy of J.B. and Ramona Roberts